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Development of a Microgrid with Renewable Energy Sources and Electrochemical Storage System Integration
Language: English This thesis is written in English
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Jose Manuel Subinas Seco De Herrera, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2015
Jose Manuel Subinas Seco De Herrera
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Beside the traditional paradigm of "centralized" power generation with a few main power plants and a distribution network directly connected to the end-users, a new concept of "distributed" generation is emerging, in which the same user becomes pro-sumer, i.e. self-energy producer. During this transition, the Energy Storage Systems (ESS) can provide multiple services and features, which are necessary for a higher quality of the electrical system (both on transmission and on distribution) and for the optimization of non-programmable Renewable Energy Source (RES) power plants.
A ESS prototype was designed, developed and integrated into a renewable energy production system in order to create a smart microgrid and consequently manage in an efficient and intelligent way the energy flow as a function of the power demand. The produced energy can be introduced into the grid, supplied to the load directly or stored in batteries.
The microgrid is composed by a 7kW wind turbine and a 17kW photovoltaic plant are part of. The load is given by electrical utilities of a cheese factory.
The ESS is composed by the following two subsystems, a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and a Power Control System (PCS). With the aim of sizing the ESS, a Remote Grid Analyzer (RGA) was designed, realized and connected to the wind turbine, photovoltaic plant and the switchboard.
Afterwards, different electrochemical storage technologies were studied, and taking into account the load requirements present in the cheese factory, the most suitable solution was identified in the high temperatures salt Na-NiCl2 battery technology. The data acquisition from all electrical utilities provided a detailed load analysis, indicating the optimal storage size equal to a 30 kW battery system. Moreover a container was designed and realized to locate the BESS and PCS, meeting all the requirements and safety conditions.
Furthermore, a smart control system was implemented in order to handle the different applications of the ESS, such as peak shaving or load leveling.